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Water Treatment Systems

Satisfaction Probability

Figure 1. Satisfaction Probability

The primary objective of this research is to evaluate the ability of Water Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRFs) to endure and recover from ongoing challenges like climate change and population growth, as well as sudden and severe stressors such as extreme weather events. The resilience of WRRFs is compromised by the aging infrastructure, which was designed in the early 20th century. This outdated infrastructure may not withstand stressors, potentially leading to service disruptions and environmental harm.

The current literature lacks a comprehensive method for quantifying resilience, and previous metrics are tailored to specific cases. To explore resilience, the study selected the GPS-X software to model a WRRF case. However, mastering the software was a steep learning curve. Data collection from field operators presented its own set of challenges, including gaps in data quality, which were addressed through interpolation. Flowmeter calibration issues significantly impacted the model's accuracy, especially concerning sludge retention time and ammonia levels.


Anna Laino

Anna Laino

PhD Student


Sadegh Soudjani

Sadegh Soudjani